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White means innocence as that of a beginner student with no previous knowledge of Taekwon-Do.
Yellow signifies the earth from which a plant sprouts and takes root as the Taekwon-Do foundation is being laid.
Green signifies the plants growth as Taekwon-Do skills begin to develop.
Blue signifies the heavens towards which the plant matures into a towering tree as training in Taekwon-Do progresses.
Red signifies danger, cautioning the student to exercise control and warning the opponent to stay away.
Black is the opposite to white, therefore signifying proficiency and maturity in Taekwon-Do. It also indicates the wearer’s imperviousness to darkness and fear.
The 24 Ch'ang-Hon patterns were introduced to the international community in 1970. In 1986 General Choi introduced a new pattern "Juche" to be taught to 2nd Degree Black Belts in place of Kodang. Owing to the complexity of the pattern which requires a high level of flexibility and agility to perform correctly many Taekwon-Do associations (including GTUK) have chosen only to include Juche Tul as a part of the Grading test for students aged under 40 yrs. Students aged 40 and above are still tested on Kodang Tul.
What is a pattern (Tul)
A pattern is a set of fundamental movements, mainly defence and attack, set in a logical sequence to deal with one or more imaginary opponents. Patterns are also an indication of a student's progress, a barometer in evaluating an individual's technique.
Why are there 24 patterns (Tul)
The reason for 24 patterns is because the founder, Major General Choi Hong Hi, compared the life of a man with a day in the life of the earth. He believed that people should strive to bequeath a good spiritual legacy to coming generations and in doing so gain immortality. Therefore if we can leave something behind for the welfare of mankind, maybe it will be the most important thing to happen in our lives, as the founder says..
"Here I leave Tae Kwon-Do for mankind as a trace of man of the late 20th century. The 24 patterns represent 24 hours, one day, or all my life.
All of the patterns in Taekwon-Do are named after great characters or events in Korean history. We learn the meanings of the patterns in order to gain inspiration and example from these people and to apply them to our training and to the way in which we lead our lives.
Chon-Ji (19 movements) Ready position - Narani Junbi Sogi
Chon-Ji means literally "the heaven and earth". It is, in the orient, interpreted as the creation of the world or the beginning of human history, therefore, it is the initial pattern played by the beginner. This pattern consists of two similar parts; one to represent the Heaven and the other the Earth.
Dan-Gun (21 movements) Ready position - Narani Junbi Sogi
Dan-Gun is named after the holy Dan-Gun, the legendary founder of Korea in the year 2,333 B.C.
Do-San (24 movements) Ready position - Narani Junbi Sogi
Do-San is the pseudonym of the patriot Ahn Chang-Ho (1876-1938) The 24 movements represent his entire life which he devoted to furthering the education of Korea and its independence movement.
Won-Hyo (28 movements) Ready position - Moa Junbi Sogi ‘A’
Won-Hyo was the noted monk who introduced Buddhism to the Silla Dynasty in the year 686 A.D.
Yul-Gok (38 movements) Ready position - Narani Junbi Sogi
Yul-Gok is the pseudonym of the great philosopher and scholar Yi l (1536-1584) nicknamed the "Confucius of Korea" The 38 movements of this pattern refer to his birthplace on the 38th degree latitude and the diagram represents "scholar".
Joong Gun (32 movements) Ready position - Moa Junbi Sogi ‘B’
Joong-Gun is named after the patriot Ahn Joong-Gun who assassinated Hiro-Bumi Ito, the first Japanese governor-general of Korea, known as the man who played the leading part in the Korea-Japan merger. The 32 movements in this pattern represent Mr. Ahn's age when he was executed in a Lui-Shung prison (1910).
Toi-Gye (37 movements) Ready position - Moa Junbi Sogi ‘B’
Toi-Gye is the pen name of the noted scholar Yi Hwang (16th century), an authority on neo Confucianism. The 37 movements of the pattern refer to his birthplace on 37th degree latitude, the diagram represents “scholar".
Hwa-Rang (29 movements) Ready position - Moa Junbi Sogi ‘C’
Hwa-Rang is named after the Hwa-Rang youth group, which originated in the Silla Dynasty in the early 7th century. The 29 movements refer to the 29th Infantry Division, where Taekwon-Do developed into maturity.
Choong-Moo (30 movements) Ready position - Narani Junbi Sogi
Choong-Moo was the name given to the great Admiral Yi Soon-Sin of the Lee Dynasty. He was reputed to have invented the first armoured battleship (Kobukson) in 1592, which is said to be the precursor of the present day submarine. The reason why this pattern ends with a left hand attack is to symbolize his regrettable death, having no chance to show his unrestrained potentiality, checked by the forced reservation of his loyalty to the king.
A Timeline Showing The Pattern Meanings In Relation To Korean History